Despre FMI. Sau IMF. International Monetary Fund. Nici acum nu stiu prea multe. Inca nu pot sa ma pronunt, si probabil asa va ramane.
Pot sa zic doar ca ce am citit nu imi place. Pe siteul lor nu prea am gasit mare lucru, alteceva in afara de ce stiam deja. Insa, am gasit alte lucruri care nu imi dau pace. Daca imi permite-ti, le voi expune.
Primul lucru care m-a pus pe ganduri este un articol scris de dl Ilie Serbanescu, referitor la posibilitatea ca imprumutul de la FMI sa fie o comanda externa. Si toate explicatiile domniei sale par sa fie rezonabile, incepand de la prima, si anume schimbarea de opinie brusca a presedintelui Basescu si a guvernatorului Isarescu referitor la acest imprumut. Articolul AICI.
Apoi, am mai cautat si eu cu prietenul gugle sa vad o descriere a acestui FMI.
Si am gasit.
Rezum ce am copiat de pe wikipedia, si totodata incerc sa traduc.
-FMI a sprijinit dictaturi militare. Criticii subliniaza ca exista exemple de economii care au dat gres imediat ce au primit imprumuturi de la FMI. In 1960 fondul a sprijinit guvernul condus de dictatorul Castello Branco, cu zeci de milioane de dolari, bani care fusesera refuzati guvernului anterior, guvern ales in mod democratic.
– Conditionarile puse de FMI inainte acordarii imprumutului, conduc la o crestere a saraciei in tarile receptoare.
-FMI incurajeaza in anumite situatii „programe de austeritate”, prin cresterea taxelor chiar si atunci cand economia este slaba. Joseph E. Stigliz, fost sef economist si Vicepresedinte la Banca Mondiala critica aceste programe, argumentand ca fondul isi pierde astfel motivul pentru care a fost creat.
-un exemplu in care FMI a agravat este Kenya. Inainte de imprumut, Banca Centrala din Kenya superviza transferurile bancare din si in afara tarii. FMI a cerut o lejeritate mai mare in trasferul banilor. Astfel s-a creat cadrul ce i-a permis lui Kamlesh Manusuklal Damji Pattni, cu sprijinul guvernului kenyan, corupt, sa scoata din tara o suma importanta de bani, lasand Kenya intr-o stare mult mai grava decat inainte de imprumut. Acesta scandal este cunoscut sub numele de theGoldenberg scandal.
Fostul premier roman, Calin Tariceanu, spune ca FMI, incepand cu 2005, se inseala deseori in evaluarea performantelor economice ale tarilor.
-In 21 din tarile care au primit imprumut de la FMI, decesul cauzat de TBC a crescut cu 16%.
Dar, vedeti cu ochii vostri. Sau intrati pe wiki si cautati IMF. Infiorator … nu-i asa ?
Citez de pe wikipedia :
„The role of the Bretton Woods institutions has been controversial since the late Cold War period, as the IMF policy makers supported military dictatorships friendly to American and European corporations. Critics also claim that the IMF is generally apathetic or hostile to their views of democracy, human rights, and labor rights. The controversy has helped spark theanti-globalisation movement. Arguments in favor of the IMF say that economic stability is a precursor to democracy; however, critics highlight various examples in which democratized countries fell after receiving IMF loans.
In the 1960s, the IMF and the World Bank supported the government of Brazil’s military dictator Castello Branco with tens of millions of dollars of loans and credit that were denied to previous democratically-elected governments.„
„Two criticisms from economists have been that financial aid is always bound to so-called „Conditionalities”, including Structural Adjustment Programs. It is claimed that conditionalities (economic performance targets established as a precondition for IMF loans) retard social stability and hence inhibit the stated goals of the IMF, while Structural Adjustment Programs lead to an increase in poverty in recipient countries.”
„…that said, the IMF sometimes advocates „austerity programmes,” increasing taxes even when the economy is weak, in order to generate government revenue and balance budget deficits, which is Keynesian policy. Countries are often advised to lower their corporate tax rate. These policies were criticised by Joseph E. Stiglitz, former chief economist and Senior Vice President at the World Bank, in his book Globalization and Its Discontents. He argued that by converting to a more Monetarist approach, the fund no longer had a valid purpose, as it was designed to provide funds for countries to carry out Keynesian reflations, and that the IMF „was not participating in a conspiracy, but it was reflecting the interests and ideology of the Western financial community.”
Another example of where IMF Structural Adjustment Programmes aggravated the problem was in Kenya. Before the IMF got involved in the country, the Kenyan central bank oversaw all currency movements in and out of the country. The IMF mandated that the Kenyan central bank had to allow easier currency movement. However, the adjustment resulted in very little foreign investment, but allowed Kamlesh Manusuklal Damji Pattni, with the help of corrupt government officials, to siphon off billions of Kenyan shillings in what came to be known as theGoldenberg scandal, leaving the country worse off than it was before the IMF reforms were implemented. In an interview, the former Romanian Prime Minister Tăriceanu stated that „Since 2005, IMF is constantly making mistakes when it appreciates the country’s economic performances”.
„In 2008, a study by analysts from Cambridge and Yale universities published on the open-access Public Library of Science concluded that strict conditions on the international loans by the IMF resulted in thousands of deaths in Eastern Europe by tuberculosis as public health care had to be weakened. In the 21 countries which the IMF had given loans, tuberculosis deaths rose by 16.6 %.”